Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (29 January [10 February] 1890, Moscow - 30 May 1960, Peredelkino, Moscow region) - Russian writer, poet, translator; one of the greatest poets of the XX century.
Pasternak first poems published aged 23 years old. AT 1955 Pasternak was finished writing the novel "Doctor Zhivago". Three years later, the writer was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, after that he was subjected to harassment and persecution by the Soviet government.
The future poet was born in Moscow in a creative Jewish family. parents Pasternak, father - artist, Academician of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts Leonid Osipovich (Isaac I.) Pasternak and his mother - a pianist Rosalia Pasternak Isidorovna (nee Kaufman, 1868—1939), We moved to Moscow from Odessa to 1889 year, a year before his birth. Boris was born in a house at the intersection of Lane and Lord of the Second Tverskaya street, where they settled. In addition to the senior, Boris, Pasternak born in the family of Alexander (1893—1982), Josephine (1900—1993) and Lydia (1902—1989). Even in the matriculation at the end of grammar school B. L. Pasternak appeared as "Boris Isaakovich (He also Leonidovich)».
Pasternak family maintained a friendship with famous artists - (Isaac Ilich Levitan, Mikhail Vasilievich Nesterov, Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov, Sergei Ivanov, Nikolai Ge). In the house there were musicians and writers, including L. n. Tolstoy; arranged small musical performances, which was attended by A. n. Skryabin and C. AT. Rachmaninoff. AT 1900 , during his second visit to Moscow with his family Pasternak met Rainer Maria Rilke. AT 13 years old, And under the influence of the composer. n. Scryabin, Pasternak became interested in music, which he worked for six years (preserved his two Preludes and Sonata for Piano).
AT 1900 year Pasternak was not adopted in the 5th Moscow gymnasium (now the Moscow school number 91) because of interest rules, but at the suggestion of the director to the next 1901 year entered once in the second class. AT 1903 year 6 (19) in August after falling from a horse broke his leg, Boris, and due to improper fusion (light lameness, which the writer hide, I stayed for a lifetime) He was later released from military service. Later, the poet paid special attention to this episode in the poem "August", How to awaken his creative powers.
25 October 1905 , Boris Pasternak was hit by a Cossack whip, when faced with the crowd on Butcher Street protesters, which drove Mounted Police. This episode will go down later in the book of Pasternak.
AT 1908 year, at the same time preparing for the final exams in high school, under the direction of Yu. D. Engel and P. M. Glier preparing for the exam for the course of the Composition faculty of the Moscow Conservatory. Pasternak graduated from high school with a gold medal and all higher scores, but the law of God, from which was released because of his Jewish origin.
Following the example of their parents, achieved high professional success tireless work, Pasternak sought throughout the "get to the bottom, in, in search of the way. "In. F. Asmus noted, that "nothing was so alien to Pasternak, as perfection by half ".
Remembering his experiences later, Pasternak wrote in "Safe Conduct": "More than anything, I loved the music ... But I did not have perfect pitch ...". After a series of vibrations Pasternak gave up a career as a professional musician and composer: "Music, the world's favorite six-year labor, hopes and fears, I tore out of himself, as the part with the most precious ".
AT 1908 he entered the law faculty of Moscow University, and 1909 year, But on the advice of. n. Scryabin, He transferred to the department of philosophy of History and Philology of Moscow University.
In summer 1912 he studied philosophy at the University of Marburg in Germany, the head of the Marburg neo-Kantian school of Professor Hermann Cohen, Pasternak, who advised the philosopher continue his career in Germany. At the same time proposed to Ida Vysotskaya (the daughter of a major tea merchant D. AT. Vysotsky), but was refused, as described in the poem "Marburg" and the autobiographical novel "Safe Conduct". AT 1912 , together with his parents and sisters visiting Venice, which is reflected in his poems of that time. He is seen in Germany with his cousin Olga Freudenberg (daughter, writer and inventor of Moses Povich Freudenberg). With her he had a long-term friendship and correspondence.
AT 1912 year B. L. Pasternak graduated from Moscow University. For diploma Pasternak did not appear. Diplom for № 20974 preserved in the archive of the Moscow University.
After a trip to Marburg Pasternak refused on, to continue to focus on philosophical lessons. At the same time, he begins to enter the circles of Moscow writers. He participated in "Musaget" meetings symbolist circle publishing, then in the literary and artistic circle Julian Anisimova and Vera Stanevich, which gave birth to a short-lived group postsimvolistskaya "Lyrics". WITH 1914 Year Pasternak belonged to the community of futurists "Centrifuge" (which also includes other former members of the "Lyrics" - Nikolay Aseev Sergei Bobrov). In the same year, closely acquainted with another futurist - Vladimir Mayakovsky, whose personality and work have had a certain influence. Later, in the 1920s, Pasternak was in contact with a group of Mayakovsky "LEF", but in general, after the revolution takes an independent position, without entering into any association.
First Pasternak's poems were published in the 1913 year (collective volume of the "Lyrics"), the first book - "Didymus in the clouds" - at the end of the same year (on the cover - 1914), Pasternak perceived themselves as an immature. AT 1928 poems, half of "Twin in the clouds" and three poems from the collection of the "Lyrics" were united in Pasternak cycle "starting time to" strongly and recycled (some actually completely rewritten); the other early experiences with life Pasternak not republished. However, just after "Twin in the clouds" Pasternak became aware of myself as a professional writer.
AT 1916 he published a book "Above the Barriers". Winter and vesnu 1916 Pasternak spent a year in the Urals, near the city of Perm province Alexander, in the village Vsevolodo-Vilva, accepting the invitation to work in the office manager Vsevolodo-Vilvenskimi chemical plants Boris Zbarsky assistant for business correspondence, trade and financial statements. It is widely believed, that the prototype city Yuryatin of "Doctor Zhivago" is the city of Perm. In the same year the poet visited the Berezniki soda factory on the Kama. In a letter to C.. P. Bobrov from 24 June 1916 r. (the next day after leaving home in Vsevolodo-Vilva), Boris' calls Soda Plant "Lyubimov, Solve and Co "and a European-style village with him -" a small industry in Belgium "".
Parents Pasternak and his sisters in 1921 year leave Soviet Russia at the personal request of the A. AT. Lunacharsky and settle in Berlin (and after the Nazis came to power - in London). Pasternak begins active correspondence with them and Russian emigration circles in general, in particular, of Marina Tsvetaeva. AT 1926 , the correspondence began with R. M. Rylke.
AT 1922 Pasternak was to marry the artist Eugene Lourie, which carries away from their parents in Berlin, the second half of the year and throughout the winter 1922-1923 years. In the same 1922 he published a book of the poet software "My Sister - Life", the majority of the poems which were written in the summer 1917 of the year. The following, 1923 year (23 September), family son Yevgeny Pasternak born (he died in the 2012 year).
In the 1920s also created a collection of "Themes and Variations" (1923), a novel in verse "Spektorsky" (1925), "High disease" cycle, poem "Nine hundred and fifth year" and "Lieutenant Schmidt". AT 1928 Pasternak was drawn to prose. By 1930, the ninth year it finishes autobiographical notes "Safe Conduct", which set out its basic views on art and creativity.
At the end of 1920 - beginning of 1930 has to a short period of official Soviet recognition of Pasternak. He is actively involved in the activities of the Soviet Writers' Union and in 1934 He was delivering a speech at its first congress, where H. AND. Bukharin called officially called Pasternak best poet of the Soviet Union. Its large volume edition with 1933 by 1936 year reissued annually.
Acquainted with Zinaida Nikolayevna Neuhaus (nee Eremeeva, 1897—1966), while the wife of the pianist Mr.. D. Neuhaus, with her in 1931 Pasternak was taking a trip to Georgia (cm. below). Interrupting his first marriage, at 1932 Pasternak was marrying W. n. Yudina. In the same year he published his book "second birth". Night 1 January 1938 Year Pasternak and his second wife, a son, Leonid (future physicist, mind. at 1976).
AT 1935 Pasternak was involved in the work taking place in Paris, the International Congress of Writers for Peace, where he was a nervous breakdown. It was his last trip abroad. Belarusian writer Yakub Kolas in his memoirs recalled Pasternak's complaints on the nerves and insomnia.
AT 1935 Pasternak was standing up for her husband and the son of Anna Akhmatova, freed from prison after Stalin letters from Pasternak and Anna Akhmatova. December 1935 Year Pasternak sends a gift to Stalin in the Georgian translation of the book of lyrics and in the accompanying letter of thanks for the "marvelous, lightning-fast release of Akhmatova's family".
In January 1936 Year Pasternak publishes two poems, addressed with words of admiration for and. AT. Stalin. However, by the middle of 1936 , the authorities' attitude towards him changes - he blamed not only in the "detachment from life", but in the "world view, not relevant age ", and unconditionally require thematic and ideological restructuring. This leads to the first long strip exclusion Pasternak from official literature. As the weakening of interest in the Soviet power, Pasternak's poems become more personal and tragic tone.
AT 1936 the year settled at the dacha in Peredelkino, where he will live intermittently until the end of life. WITH 1939 by 1960 year of living in the country at: Pavlenko street, 3 (It is now a memorial museum). Its Moscow address in the writer's house since the middle of 1930 until the end of life: Lavroushinsky lane, D.17 / 19, kv.72.
By the end of the 1930s he turned to prose and translations, who in the 40s have become the main source of his earnings. At that time, Pasternak created become classical translations of many tragedies Shekspira (including "Hamlet"), "Faust" Hёte, "Mary Stuart" F. Schiller. Pasternak knew, which translates saving loved ones from a lack of money, and themselves - from accusations of "divorced from life", but at the end of life c bitterly stated, that "... half of his life he put into orders - his most fruitful time".
1942-1943 years spent in evacuation in Chistopol. Helped many people money, including repressed daughter Marina Tsvetaeva - Ariadna Efron.
AT 1943 he published a book of poems "On Early Trains", comprising four cycles of pre-war and wartime poems.
AT 1946 Pasternak was met with Olga Ivinskaya (1912—1995) and she became a "muse" of the poet. He dedicated many poems to her. Until his death, Pasternak them tied close relationship.
AT 1952 year Pasternak there was a first heart attack, described in the poem "In the hospital":
"O Lord, as a perfect
thy works, - I thought the patient, —
bed, and people, and walls,
Night of death and city night ... "
the patient's situation was serious, but, Pasternak wrote 17 January 1953 Nine years Tabidze, it comforting, that "the end will not catch me by surprise, in the midst of work, for something undone. the little, that could be done among the obstacles, which puts time, done (translating Shakespeare, Faust, Barataşvili)».
Pasternak and Georgia
The first interest Pasternak appeared in Georgia 1917 year, when it was written the poem "In Memory of Demon", which sounded inspired by the works of Lermontov Caucasian topic.
In October 1930 Year Pasternak met with arrived in Moscow Georgian poet Paolo Iashvili.
In July 1931 at the invitation of U. Iashvili Boris Leonidovich and Zinaida Nikolayevna Neuhaus and her son Adrian (Adika) We arrived in Tbilisi. There began the introduction and followed by a close friendship with Titian Tabidze, D. Leonidze, WITH. Čikovani, Lado Gudiašvili, Nicolo Mitsishvili and other leaders of Georgian art.
Impressions from a three-month stay in Georgia, close contact with its unique culture and history have left an imprint on the spiritual world of Pasternak.
6 April 1932 , he organized in Moscow literary evening of Georgian poetry. 30 June Pasternak wrote P. Yashvyly, he would write about Georgia.
In August 1932 , the book "second birth" to "Waves" is included in her cycle, full of delight.
... We were in Georgia. multiply
I need tenderness, of paradise,
Greenhouse ice take the foot of,
And we will get the edge ...
In November 1933 Year Pasternak went on a second trip to Georgia already in the writing teams (n. Tikhonov, YU. Tynyanov, ABOUT. Fors, P. Pavlenko and B. Goltsev). In 1932-1933 Pasternak passionately engaged in translations of Georgian poets.
AT 1934 in Georgia, and in Moscow it was published Pasternak's translation of the poem by Vazha Pshavela "toed snake-eagle".
4 January 1935 year talked about his translations of Georgian poetry at the 1st All-Union Conference interpreters Pasternak. 3 February of the same year he read at the conference "Poets Soviet Georgia".
In February 1935 year published a book: Moscow "Georgian poetry" in translations of Pasternak (design artist Lado Gudiashvili), and in Tbilisi - "Poets of Georgia" in Pasternak's translations and Tikhonov. T. Tabidze wrote about translations of Georgian poets Pasternak, that they are stored not only the semantic precision, but "all the images and arrangement of words, despite a slight discrepancy between the metrical nature of the Georgian and Russian poetry, and, most importantly, they feel the melody, rather than transcription of images, and wonder, that all this is achieved without the knowledge of the Georgian language ".
AT 1936 , was completed one more Georgian cycle of poems - "From the summer of notes", dedicated to "friends in Tbilisi".
22 July 1937 , the shot Paolo Iashvili. In August, Pasternak wrote him a letter of condolence to the widow.
10 October was arrested, but 16 December shot Titian Tabidze. Pasternak was for many years the material and moral support of his family. In the same year, he was arrested another Georgian friend of Pasternak - H. Mitsishvili.
When to Moscow, before the war, M back. AND. Tsvetaeva, at the request of Pasternak in Goslitizdat gave her translation work, including the Georgian poets. Tsvetaeva translated three poems of Vazha Pshavela (more 2000 term), but he complained about the difficulty of the Georgian language.
AT 1945 Pasternak was completed translation of virtually all the surviving poems, and poems H. Barataşvili. 19 October at the invitation of Simon Chikovani, he spoke at the celebrations in Baratashvili Tbilisi Theater Rustaveli. Before departure from Tbilisi poet I received as a gift from Nina Tabidze stock of stamped paper, preserved after the arrest of her husband. E. B. Pasternak wrote, that it is on it were written the first chapters of "Doctor Zhivago". Boris Leonidovich, appreciated the "noble yellow of ivory" this paper, He said later, that this feeling affected the work on the novel, and it is - "Nina's novel".
AT 1946 year, Pasternak wrote two articles: "Nikolai Baratashvili" and "A few words about the new Georgian poetry". In the latter did not mention the names of the former banned P. Yashvili and T. Tabide, but they are included in line, he 1956 year in a special chapter of the essay "The people and the situation", which was published in the "New World" only in January 1967 of the year.
In October 1958 year among the first to congratulate Pasternak a Nobel Prize was a guest in his house of the widow of Titian Tabidze - Nina.
WITH 20 February to 2 Martha 1959 was held last trip Pasternak and Zinaida Georgia. The poet wanted to breathe the air of youth, visit homes, where once it departed friends lived; Another important reason was that, that the authorities forced Pasternak to leave Moscow on a visit to the USSR, the British Prime Minister, Mr.. Makmillana, who expressed his desire to see "Peredelkino hermit" personally and find out the reasons, for which he refused the Nobel Prize. At the request of Pasternak Nina Tabidze tried to keep his visit a secret, Only in the house of the artist Lado Gudiashvili was arranged evening with a selected circle of friends. The memorial room apartment Tabidze family, where Pasternak lived, keep things, he used, low old-fashioned shade of a round table, desk, for which he wrote.
Attempts to interpret and understand the roots of Georgian culture led to the writer's intention to develop the theme of early Christian Georgia. Pasternak began to pick up materials on the lives of the saints of the Georgian Church, archaeological excavations, Georgian. However, due to the premature death of the poet's intention remained unfulfilled.
Which began in the early 1930's friendship with prominent representatives of Georgian art, communication and correspondence which lasted almost thirty years, It led to, Pasternak that Georgia has become a second home. Nine letters from Tabidze:
... But I graduated from, will my life,... and that was the main thing in it, primary? An example of his father's activities, love for music and A. n. Scryabin, two - three new notes in my work, Russian night in the village, revolution, Georgia.
Sincere interest and love for the people and culture of Georgia instilled confidence in Pasternak's poem hero H. Baratashvili "The fate of Georgia" Irakli II in the future so welcome at his country.
1990 year has been declared by UNESCO as the "year of Pasternak". The organizers of the anniversary memorial exhibition at the State Museum of Fine Arts named after AS. WITH. Pushkin highlight the theme of "Pasternak and Georgia" in a separate section.
Issues of development of relations of the Russian and Georgian culture on the example of the relationship of poets have been included in the agenda of the international conference "Boris Pasternak and Titian Tabidze: friendship of poets as the dialogue of cultures ", held 5 — 6 April 2015 , the State Literary Museum in Moscow.
In February 1959 year B. L. Pasternak wrote about his attitude to the place, which is engaged in prose in his work:
... I've always wanted from poetry to prose, the narrative and description of the relationship with the surrounding reality, because such prose seems to me the investigation and implementation of, what it means for me poetry.
In accordance with this, I can say: poetry - is untreated, unrealized prose ...
The novel "Doctor Zhivago" was created over ten years, from 1945 by 1955 year. being, Assessment of the writer, the peak of his creativity as a writer, the novel is a broad canvas of life of the Russian intelligentsia against the backdrop of the dramatic period from the beginning of the century up to World War II. Novel permeated high poetry, escorted poems protagonist - Yuri Andreyevich Zhivago. In changing his name while writing the novel more than once Pasternak. The novel could be called "Boys and Girls", "A candle burned", "The experience of Russian Faust", "Death does not exist".
Novel, affecting the deepest questions of human existence - the mysteries of life and death, questions of history, Christianity,- was greeted very negatively by the authorities and the official Soviet literary environment, rejected for publication due to the ambiguous position of the author in relation to the October Revolution and the subsequent changes in the country's life. So, eg, E. D. Kazakevich, read a novel, stated: "It turns out, judging from the novel, The October Revolution - a misunderstanding and it was better not to do "; TO. M. Simonov, chief editor of the "New World", He responded refusal: "It is impossible to give a platform to Pasternak!».
The book was published first in Italy 1957 , the publishing house Feltrinelli, and then in the Netherlands and the UK, brokered by the philosopher and diplomat, Sir Isaiah Berlin.
The publication of the novel in the Netherlands and the UK (and then in the US in pocket format) and free distribution of the book Soviet tourists at the World Exhibition 1958 in Brussels and at the Festival of Youth and Students in Vienna, organized by the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA was also involved in spreading "which had great propaganda value" books in the countries of the socialist bloc. Besides, as it follows from the declassified documents, at the end of the 1950s, the British Ministry of Foreign Affairs tried to use "Doctor Zhivago" as a tool of anti-communist propaganda and supported the publication of the novel in Persian.
Feltrinelli publisher accused the Dutch of violating his rights to publish. The CIA was able to pay off this scandal, since the book was a success among the Soviet tourists. Publication of the book led to the persecution of Pasternak in the Soviet press, its exclusion from the Union of Soviet Writers, insults at him from the pages of Soviet newspapers, to "workers' assemblies. Moscow organization of the Union of Soviet Writers, after the board of the Writers' Union, Pasternak demanded the expulsion of the Soviet Union and the deprivation of his Soviet citizenship. among writers, demanding the expulsion, L were. AND. Oshanin, BUT. AND. Bezymenskii, B. A. Slutsky, WITH. A. Baruzdin, B. n. Field and many others (cm. the transcript of the meeting of the All-Moscow meeting of writers in the "References"). The negative attitude to the novel and expressed by some Russian writers in the West, including. AT. Nabokov.
Nobel Prize. hounding
annually 1946 by 1950 year and 1957 Pasternak was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature. AT 1958 , his candidacy was proposed last year's laureate Albert Camus, and 23 October Pasternak was the second writer from Russia (after I. A. Bunin), awarded this award.
The award was perceived by Soviet propaganda as an excuse to continue the persecution of the poet. Already on the day of the award (23 October 1958 of the year), on the initiative of M. BUT. Suslov Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee adopted a resolution "On slanderous novel B. Pasternak ", which recognized the decision of the Nobel committee another attempt to retract the Cold War.
"Literary Gazette" (The editor in chief. Kochetov) 25 October 1958 , wrote, that the writer "has agreed to play the role of bait on a rusty hook anti-Soviet propaganda".
Publicist David Zaslavsky published in "Pravda" article "reactionary propaganda buzz around the literary weed".
Sergei Mikhalkov responded to award Pasternak negative epigram Prize for caricature M. Abramov "Nobel dish".
29 October 1958 year at the Plenum of the Central Committee of Komsomol Vladimir Sevenfold, at that time - the first secretary of the Young Communist League, stated (he later claimed - on the orders of Khrushchev):
31 October 1958 r. over the Nobel Prize to Pasternak chairman of the All-Moscow collection of writer Sergei Smirnov, the Soviet Union made a speech, concluding, that writers should contact the government to deprive Pasternak Soviet citizenship.
The semi-official literary environment Pasternak the Nobel Prize was perceived negatively. At the meeting of the Party Group of the Board of the Writers' Union 25 October 1958 year N. Gribachev and C. Mikhalkov, as well as Faith Inber made to deprive Pasternak's citizenship and expelled from the country.
27 October 1958 by the decision of the joint meeting of the Presidium of the Union of Soviet Writers, Bureau of the Organizing Committee of the RSFSR Writers' Union and the Presidium of the Moscow branch of the RSFSR Writers' Union Pasternak was unanimously expelled from the Writers' Union. the exclusion decision was approved 28 October at the meeting of the Moscow journalists, but 31 of October - at the general meeting of the Moscow Writers, chaired C. WITH. Smirnova. Several writers on the meeting did not attend due to illness, due to the departure or without cause (including Tvardovsky, Sholokhov, Covers, B.Lavrenov, Marshak, Ilya Ehrenburg, Leonov). Later Twardowski and Lavrenev in a letter in the "Literary Gazette" 25 October 1958 He has sharply criticized the novel and its author. Across the country held national meetings, territorial and regional writers' organization, in which writers have condemned the treacherous behavior of Pasternak, to put it out of Soviet literature and Soviet society.
The awarding of the Nobel Prize B. L. Pasternak and began his campaign of harassment unexpectedly coincided with the award in the same year the Nobel Prize in Physics the Soviet physicists P. BUT. Cherenkov, AND. M. And Frank and. E. Tamm. 29 October, the newspaper "Pravda" published an article, signed by six academics, which it reported on the outstanding achievements of Soviet physicists, awarded the Nobel prizes. It contained a paragraph about, that the award of the Prize-winning physicist was the objective, and in literature - due to political considerations. in the evening 29 October Peredelkino came Academician M. BUT. Leontovych, who deemed it duty to assure Pasternak, that real physics do not think so, and tendentious phrases in the article are not held and were inserted against their will. In particular, required to write an article I refused Academician L. BUT. Artsimovich (referring to the covenant Pavlova scientists say only, What do you know). he demanded, to be given for that read "Doctor Zhivago".
Baiting the poet was called in folk memories: "Do not read, but I condemn!».
Incriminating meetings held in workplaces, in institutions, plants, bureaucratic organizations, creative unions, where it constitutes collective offensive letters demanding punishment disgraced poet.
Despite, that the prize was awarded to Pasternak for "significant achievements in contemporary lyrical poetry, as well as the continuation of the traditions of the great Russian epic novel ", the efforts of the official Soviet authorities it should only be memorable was how strongly associated with the novel "Doctor Zhivago". As a result of mass pressure campaign Boris Pasternak refused the Nobel Prize. The telegram, sent to the address of the Swedish Academy, Pasternak wrote : "In view of the importance, which had awarded me a prize in the society, to which I belong, I have to give it up. Do not think for insult my voluntary renunciation ".
Jawaharlal Nehru and Albert Camus took over the petition for the new Nobel laureate Pasternak before Nikita Khrushchev. But everything was in vain, although the writer was neither expelled, or imprisoned.
Despite the exclusion from the Union of Soviet Writers, Pasternak continued to be a member of the Literary Fund, receive royalties, published. Repeatedly expressed his persecutors idea, Pasternak, probably, He wants to leave the USSR, it was rejected - Pasternak in a letter to Khrushchev's name written: "To leave their homeland for me is death. I have been associated with the birth of Russia, life, work ".
Because of the "Nobel Prize" published a poem in the West, Pasternak in February 1959 He has been summoned to the Prosecutor General of the USSR P. BUT. Rudenko, where he was threatened with prosecution under Article 64 "Gongryong", but any effect this event had for him.
In summer 1959 Pasternak year began work on the remaining unfinished play "Blind Beauty", but cancer is found soon light in the last months of his life chained him to the bed.
According to his son, the poet, 1 May 1960 year patient Pasternak, in anticipation of the imminent demise, He asked his friend E. BUT. Krasheninnikov about confession.
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak died of lung cancer 30 May 1960 year in Peredelkino, 71-year life. Message of his death was published in "Literary Gazette" (release from 2 June) and in the newspaper "Literature and Life" (from 1 June); as well as in the newspaper "Evening Moscow".
Boris Pasternak was buried 2.6.1960 year Peredelkino cemetery. Carry out his final journey has come a lot of people (among them Naum Korzhavin, Okudzhava, Andrei Voznesensky, Kuliev), despite the disgrace of the poet. Author of the monument on his grave - Sculptor Sarah Lebedeva.
The monument at the grave repeatedly desecrated, and the fortieth anniversary of the death of the poet was installed a replica of the monument, Made sculptor Dmitry Shakhovskoi.
On Sunday night 5 November 2006 , vandals desecrated this monument. Currently on the grave, situated on a steep slope of a high hill, to strengthen the restored monument and prevent slipping soil erected powerful stylobate, covering the burial of Pasternak, his wife Zinaida (He died in the 1966 year), younger son Leonid (died in 1976 year), Senior - Evgenij Pasternak and stepson Adrian Neuhaus. playground has also been arranged for visitors and tourists.
The first wife of the writer, Evgenia Pasternak, He died in the 1965 year. The marriage lasted from 1922 by 1931 годы. In marriage, a son, Yevgeny Pasternak (1923—2012).
Second wife - Zinaida Neuhaus-Pasternak, former wife of Heinrich Neuhaus. The marriage was concluded in 1932 year. The family Pasternak brought up two children Henry and Zinaida Neuhaus, including pianist Stanislav Neuhaus. The marriage was born the second son of Pasternak - Leonid (died in 1976 at the age 38 years old).
Last Love Pasternak, Olga Ivinskaya (they met in 1948 year), after the poet's death on trumped-up charges held in custody 4 of the year (up to 1964), then at the bequest received royalties purchased an apartment in a house near Savyolovsky Station, where she lived until her death 8 September 1995 of the year. Buried in Peredelkino cemetery.
Boris Pasternak 4 and grandson 10 great grandchildren.
The negative attitude of the Soviet authorities to Pasternak gradually changed after his death. In articles about Pasternak in Short Literary Encyclopedia (1968) and in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1975) his creative difficulties in 1950 already described in a neutral manner (by obeyh articles - From. WITH. Papernyi). However, the publication of the novel speech did not go.
In the Soviet Union to 1989 year in the school curriculum in literature about the works of Pasternak, and even of its existence, there was no mention.
AT 1987 , the decision to expel Pasternak from the Writers' Union was canceled. AT 1988 year's "Doctor Zhivago" was first printed in the USSR ("New world"). In summer 1988 He has been issued a diploma Pasternak the Nobel Prize. He was sent to Moscow to the heirs of the poet through his younger friend, Poet Andrei Voznesensky, Come to Stockholm. 9 December 1989 , the medal was awarded the Nobel Prize winner in Stockholm, son of the poet - Evgeny Pasternak. Under his well edited several collections of the poet's works. At the end of XX - beginning of XXI century, numerous collections were published in Russia, memories and materials for a biography of the writer.
Text taken from the page https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Пастернак,_Борис_Леонидович